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Lazzarino et al. Antimicrobials are administered to cattle to treat various pathological disorders such as respiratory diseases. The One Health approach promotes the rational use of antimicrobial drugs to contrast the antimicrobial resistance AMR.

The present study constitutes the first attempt to analyse antibiotic consumption of the beef cattle sector in the region of Piedmont North-West of Italy. The goal of our study was to assess the antibiotic use, in both quantitative and qualitative brennan perdita di peso cary nc, of a sample of beef farms with a software that would then enable us to set benchmark levels for the considered sample.

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To this aim, the antibiotic usage of ten intensive beef farms in the two-year period was recorded and analysed. For each farm that is part of the panel analysed, data about its annual antibiotic usage in andsubdivided between the various antibiotic commercial products utilised, was recorded directly by the veterinarians that manage the selected farm.

Differences about the relative use of different classes of antibiotics were detected between farms. Furthermore, three farms out of ten fell out of the highest set benchmark level in at least one year of the biennium analysed. Further studies will be needed to assess whether the benchmark levels set in the current pilot study can be extended to all the Piedmontese beef farming sector. Furthermore, this approach has a direct positive impact on the antibiotic resist- Corresponding Author: Lindsey Lorenzo Lazzarino lindsey.

It has been proven that bacteria traits resistant to antibiotics can be selected in livestock farms thus setting a starting point to work on to reduce the risk in question1.

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The beef cattle sector is usually less interested in measuring antibiotic consumption than the dairy one. This is probably due to the antibiotic usage in the meat supply chain does not have a direct negative effect on the income of beef farmers, as instead happens on milk production.

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In this context, reference levels of antibiotic consumption in beef cattle farms should be set to reduce their use. To achieve this, the first step is to measure the actual use of antibiotics at farm level. This is important, primarily, for two reasons: to promote a more rational use of antibiotics in general and, more specifically, to reduce to the minimum the use of those classes of antibiotics which are of primary importance in human care cephalosporins of 3rd and 4th generation and fluoroquinolones 2.

The antibiotic classes in question are used in the farming sector because they work in livestock health management as well as in human medicine2,3. The rational use of antibiotics at farm level, by enabling farms to achieve a more accurate usage that can result in limiting their overall consumption, could reduce the selective pressure on pathogens in the farming environment.

This must be done to try to avoid the development of antibiotic-resistant traits which, in the worst case scenario, may transmit their new resistance to human pathogens.

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To this end it is necessary to achieve a rational level of antibiotic consumption as close to zero as possible. Since the selective pressure on bacteria resulting from the use of antibiotics cannot be completely avoided, the effectiveness of life-saving antibiotics must be preserved to ensure human safety.

The problem arising from the selection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is perceived as such not only by the medical sector, but also by the agricultural sector. Indeed, many stakeholders recognise the need to reduce the overall use of antibiotics at farm level as a priority2. The software in question is available to all Veterinarians that are Sivar members.

Studies of antibiotic consumption in the Italian livestock sector that use DDD indexes are quite recent in Italy4,5,6.

For the dairy sector, however, many veterinarians have already used this tool to assess the level of antibiotic consumption at farm level. The key to approach the problem of antibiotic resistance remains the One Health concept7,8.

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At this purpose, this work has been conducted to investigate the consumption of antibiotics at farm level, as this is one of the levels at which antibiotic-resistant microorganisms can develop and subsequently spread to other health care sectors8. This research represents the first pilot study to analyse the consumption of antibiotics on cattle farms in Piedmont. Currently, no standard has been set to assess the consumption of antibiotics in the cattle breeding sector by Italian regulators.

The panel consistency is however adequate to achieve the objectives of the current pilot study.

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The selected farms have been chosen to be representative of the Piedmontese intensive beef farming production system in terms of number of animals fattened on average beef bulls, ranging from 43 to animals per farmof production cycle and of animals characteristics breed and brennan perdita di peso cary nc weight at slaughter.

The Piedmontese beef farming sector is based on a high degree of intensity, a long fattening cycle and a relevant incidence of animal imports. In the Italian Po plain, due to the high pressure of the livestock sector on a limited agricultural area, animals are not ordinarily raised extensively on pasture and beef cattle are sold to the slaughterhouse usually aging between sixteen and eighteen months.

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Furthermore, a relevant percentage of beef animals farmed in Piedmont are bought, just after weaning, directly from France. For each analysed farm, antibiotic usage data was collected relatively to the two-year period in order to compare the difference in consumption between different years. The list of all antibiotic administrations of the biennium under analysis, together with the number of medicine packages used and the corresponding actual dosages of each administration, were recorded, directly by veterinarians, for each considered farm.

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The Sivar software groups all beef cattle into just one category of animals, all weighting kg. Rearing farms are not included into the Sivar software.

If commercial antibiotic formulations with more than one active ingredient are present, the software calculates each antibiotic class separately. The classification of critically important antibiotics that was considered in the present study is the one utilised by the Netherlands Veterinary Medicines Institute SDa in its annual reports, the most recent of which was released in This was done to enable us to set our benchmarking system as close as possible to the SDa one.

Our choice is also linked to the fact that when the Sivar software was developed init was set as close as possible to the antibiotic management system in place in the Netherlands. Despite the Sivar system has been set as close as possible to the Dutch one by adopting the same index calculated as shown in athe reference weights of the two systems are different: the Sivar software attributes an average weight of kg to one average fattening bull, while the Dutch system only of kg.

This choice is probably linked to the average final weight of bulls of specialized beef breeds typically fattened in Italy, which is considerably higher than the average one of beef breeds reared in Northern Europe.

Consequently, kg probably represents a good estimate of the average weight of a single animal during the fattening process in Italy, especially since this data is in accordance with the statistics provided by the Italian Institute of Statistics ISTAT-Istituto Nazionale di Statistica. By falling into the Signalling zone a farm is not necessarily exposed to sanctions.

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Benchmark levels for dairy farms used by the Dutch SDa were proved to be applicable to the Sivar software calculation to benchmark Piedmontese dairy farms This is due to there is no medical reason to justify a higher level of antibiotic use, on average per one kilogram of live weight, for fattening beef bulls higher than the level of antibiotic used, always on average per one kilogram of live weight, for dairy cows and lactating calves.

This is so because, due to bruciagrassi tiffany management of dairy cows and sanitary problems connected with lactating calves, these animal categories are more prone to infections and diseases than fattening beef bulls reared in the modern and up to date farms of the Nord of Italy.

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For example, the use of antimicrobial resistance testing is not a viable option as the available laboratories take too many days to provide the results of these tests. This means that waiting for the results before prescribing appropriate antibiotics can lead to the death of sick animals.

It is also important to underline whether differences in antibiotic usage are present between beef farms with higher antibiotic usage and those with a lower one. The comparison between the two considered years and set benchmark levels are included.

Five farms brennan perdita di peso cary nc of brennan perdita di peso cary nc fall out of the estimated Target zone in The farm F08 underwent an even higher increase in antibiotic usage inthan the other two beef farms in question F09 and F In however, it can be detected a reduction in antibiotic consumption that brings a total of seven farms under the benchmark level in question.

Beta-lactams antibiotic was the antibiotic bruciare il grasso sottocutaneo most used infollowed by macrolides, tetracyclines and quinolones. Beta lactams usage increases consistently in while the use of macrolides, tetracyclines and quinolones decreased. In both groups, beta-lactams and macrolides were the classes of antibiotics which are more used in as well as in No relevant differences between the usages of different classes of antibiotics are detected between the two years.

When overall antibiotic consumption increases, the use of every antibiotic class typically increases, even if not always of the same relative amount. To maintain the effectiveness of a benchmark system on the long run it should be periodically adapted Under the current conditions, the benchmark levels set in this work seem to guarantee the highest reduction in overall antibiotic usage, as a result of a more rational use, in the Piedmontese beef farming sector.

They also utilised a very low amount of quinolones fluoroquinolones are includedthe use of which underwent a reduction amounting at Such a low usage of the antibiotics of the classes in question is the result of the voluntary work, of the veterinarians that manage the beef farms analysed.

They dedicate their efforts to rationalise the use of antibiotic classes of primary importance to human health: this enabled the farms of the panel to reach consumption levels, of the classes of antibiotics in question, equal to zero in both the analysed years. Veterinarians are often aware of the pivotal role they play in reducing the risk of selecting bacteria resistant at farm level14, Even if dedicated protocols, specifically designed by veterinarians, result in an increase in the workload for farmers, the benefits they provide have been proved to outnumber the inevitable increase in complexity of the resulting farm management If the number of veterinarians working in the livestock sector who decide to voluntarily undertake the discussed approach were to increase, then the risk of selecting antibiotic-resistant bacteria could be significantly reduced by a more rational use of antibiotics.

This would be achievable with the approach analysed even in the absence of specific regulations. Indeed, in the United States, for example, despite the lack of national policies on antimicrobials, a consistent spread of a voluntary approach has helped the legislator to start tackling the problem Being set as close as possible to the one officially in force in the Netherlands, it can also help to build a common antibiotic resistance brennan perdita di peso cary nc system.

In Italy no mandatory system to decrease antibiotic consumption at farm level is currently adopted. Since the current work constitutes the first attempt to study antibiotic usage of Piedmontese intensive beef farms, further studies will be needed to analyse antibiotic consumption considering an higher number of beef farms. This would make it possible to assess the changes to the developed benchmark system that may be needed to ensure its effectiveness in different contexts, regional and national.

Reducing the risk of selecting antibiotic resistant bacteria is an ongoing process that plays a key role in the application of the One Health approach. By promoting a more rational use of antibiotics, the agricultural sector can do its part to ensure global health.